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雅思备考之英汉语言差异

2017-04-24 来源:lilin 分享:
很多同学在备考雅思的时候,对于英汉语言的差异极为头疼,在中国大环境下很难区分开其中的不同。下面文都国际小编就给大家梳理下。

  很多同学在备考雅思的时候,对于英汉语言的差异极为头疼,在中国大环境下很难区分开其中的不同。下面文都国际小编就给大家梳理下。

  (一)头小尾大VS头大尾小

  英:I lost my sight when I was four years old by falling off a boxcar in a freight yard in Atlantic City and landing on my head.

  汉:四岁那年在大西洋城,我从货场一辆棚车上摔了下来,头先着地,于是双目失明。

  (二)主干短附结多VS句子短连接展开

  英:We Americans of today, together with our allies, are passing through a period of supreme test. It is a test of our courage——of our wisdom——of our essential democracy.(Franklin. D. Roosevelt, 4th, Inaugural Address)

  汉:她吃完了饭,换上新衣服、新手帕、绣花鞋、镶边裤,又擦了一次粉,加了几件首饰,然后叫于福给她备了驴,他骑上,于福给她赶上,往区上去。(赵树理《小二黑结婚》)

  (三)逻辑性、组织性、理性VS流散与疏散、暗示与意境

  英:When I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages, take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, and I am flooded with happiness.

  汉:枯藤老树昏鸦,小桥流水人家,古道西风瘦马。夕阳西下,断肠人在天涯。(马致远《天静沙》)

  (四)形合VS意合(最本质区别)

  英:思维(概念)→程式整合(1. 词的形态变化,以动词为主轴;2. SVO句法结构形成;3. 话语应接)→言语形式

  汉:思维(概念)→词语对接(语序及虚词)→组合→言语形式

  英:Libraries made education possible, and education in its turn added to libraries; the growth of knowledge followed a kind of compound-interest law, which was greatly enhanced by the invention of printing.

  汉:图书馆的出现使教育的发展成为可能,而教育的发展又反过来使图书馆不断扩大充实。知识的增长遵循了一种复利法则。由于印刷术的发明,这一知识增长过程得以大大加速。

  又如:

  英:Established in 1960s when federal money flowed, the clinics are a shadow of their formed selves. Patients wait hours while the undermanned-and-sometimes-short-tempered staff struggle to meet the demand.

  汉译:这些诊所是联邦政府在60年代拨出巨款兴建的,如今已是徒有其表。病人候诊要数小时,医务人员人手不够,只能穷于应付,有时还发脾气。

  通过以上对比分析我们会发现,英文是眉毛鼻子一把抓,结构严谨,必须由各种连接词串联起来,一句话可以是单主语+多动词的结构,或者是单动词+多状语的结构。而汉语,重心往往落在句尾,结构松散,肥瘦随意,可以没有动词只取意境,也可以通过虚词传情达意,完全与英语不同。

  再比如:He should share those daily duties, spend as much time as his job allows with his children,play with them, read to them, help directly with their education, participate very fully in their lives and encourage them to share his.

  She will talk quickly and eagerly and aimlessly about nothing at all, snatching at any subject as a panacea to pain.

  理解了这些差异,我们扩展句子就会简单正确很多。平时可通过以下方式练习。

  1. 完成一个单句;

  The younger generation’s chances are pretty slim.

  2. 添加定语;

  The younger generation’s chances of having an excellent start in life are pretty slim.

  3. 加状语从句;

  The younger generation’s chances of having an excellent start in life are pretty slim as their lives and outlooks are seriously affected by nine indicators.

  4. 加同位语;

  The younger generation’s chances of having an excellent start in life are pretty slim as their lives and outlooks are seriously affected by nine indicators—unemployment, income, housing, pensions, health, education, government debt, the environment and participation in democracy.

  5. 加主语从句;

  It is clear that the younger generation’s chances of having an excellent start in life are pretty slim as their lives and outlooks are seriously affected by nine indicators—unemployment, income, housing, pensions, health, education, government debt, the environment and participation in democracy.

  再看一例。

  1. 完成一个单句;

  There has been an increased shift.

  2. 加后置定语;

  There has been an increased shift in favor of the older generation.

  3. 加状语;

  There has been an increased shift in favor of the older generation through higher charges for education.

  4. 再加伴随状语;

  There has been an increased shift in favor of the older generation through higher charges for education, rising youth unemployment and high housing costs.

  5. 再加个时间状语;

  Whilst government borrowing and pension debt have increased steadily, there has been an increased shift in favor of the older generation through higher charges for education, rising youth unemployment and high housing costs.

  以上就是雅思考试中英汉语言差异,小编希望通过这样的分析,对大家理解文章和表达观点会有帮助。

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